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Marking is an operation designed to establish a permanent, irrevocable boundary between two contiguous properties. It often becomes necessary when a dispute arises as to the location of a boundary. Marking can be done amicably, when the owners agree on the line separating their respective properties, or legally, if the parties are unable to reach an agreement. In this latter case, the land surveyor recommends the line he or she believes would be best, based on the evidence available.

The cadastre is a Government register, and is therefore open to the public. It comprises numerous plans and documents drawn up by land surveyors. The plans contain information on private properties, including their dimensions, surface area, shape and position with respect to neighbouring properties. For identification purposes, each property is given a separate lot number.

Certificate of localisation
A minute containing a report and a plan, in which the land surveyor expresses his or her opinion of the current situation and condition of a landed property as far as the titles, cadastre and any legislation and regulations affecting it. A certificate of location can be used only for the purpose for which it was prepared.

Metes and Bounds Description
A metes and bounds description is a document containing a report and plan in which the land surveyor describes a site as it relates to the cadastre. It is drawn up for a specific purpose, such as an easement of passage, a drainage easement, an easement of encroachment, agricultural zoning, annexation or municipal mergers.

Building Layout
This term refers to the set of operations carried out by a land surveyor with a view to positioning the exact site of a structure or part of a structure based on monuments and known points.

Staking refers to the set of operations carried out by a land surveyor to indicate the boundaries of a site by means of markers. Staking is valid for the client only, and cannot be set up against a third party. It reflects land surveyor's professional opinion only. The land surveyor must inform the client of any irregularities that may be discovered during staking.

Cadastral Renewal
Among other things, the purpose of the cadastral renewal is to reconstitute an accurate general picture of all privately owned property in Québec. The renewal process is defined as the action of bringing into line the cadastre, the titles of ownership and the actual occupation of the property. It will correct the 750,000 or so lots for which anomalies have been found, and will also identify the 850,000 immovables (parts of lots) that were not shown on the cadastre in the past, by allocating a separate lot number to each one.

Arpentage foncier
Arpentage de construction
Certificat de location